Темная сторона Facebook: как социальные сети сеют раздор и разжигают войны

«Миссия Facebook – объединять людей», – заявлял неоднократно основатель компании Марк Цукерберг. 

Facebook действительно это делает. И похоже, очень часто он объединяет людей вокруг ненависти и агрессии.

На фото вверху: Отображение лицо генерального директора Facebook Марка Цукерберга в видоискателе телевизионной камеры в день, когда он давал показания перед сенатским комитетом в Вашингтоне, США, 10 апреля 2018 года. Платная версия Facebook, политическая цензура, регулирования интернета и границы приватности. Об этом Марк Цукерберг два дня свидетельствовал в Конгрессе США, отвечая на вопрос конгрессменов  / EPA-EFE / МАЙКЛ РЕЙНОЛДС

Реальные войны и конфликты переходят в онлайн, где горят с не меньшей силой, а иногда даже еще больше разжигают рознь. Геноцид мусульман рохинджа в Мьянме, конфликт в Палестине, напряжение на Балканах – это лишь небольшой перечень того, где соцсети стали эффективным плацдармом для войны или информационных манипуляций. Следовательно, и зарабатывание на этом.

Геноцид в онлайне

Несколько лет в Мьянме продолжается один из самых масштабных геноцидов в современном мире – власть буддистской страны преследует мусульманское этническое меньшинство рохинджа. Уничтожены деревни, десятки тысяч убитых и сотни тысяч беженцев – такова сейчас реальность в штате Ракхайн, родине рохинджа.

Ненависть начала стремительно распространяться через интернет, прежде всего – через Facebook. Это самая популярная соцсеть в Мьянме – согласно отчетам GlobalStats, там ее активно используют более 92% всех пользователей соцсетей. Однако в стране, где продолжается кровавый конфликт, общения в онлайн вышло далеко за пределы дружеских разговоров или распространение мемов. Журналисты Reuters выяснили, что Facebook стал площадкой для разжигания ненависти внутри страны. Несмотря на то, что Цукерберг неоднократно подчеркивал, что его команда делает все для того, чтобы отслеживать такие сообщения и бороться с языком вражды.

Обычно Facebook блокирует любые сообщения, которые призывают к агрессии, дискриминации или содержат оскорбительную лексику. Это хорошо. Но иногда ситуация доходила до абсурда – когда алгоритм воспринимал изображения скульптур эпохи Ренессанса за порнографию, или же модераторы удаляли публикации с цитатами Тараса Шевченко, якобы находя в них язык вражды.

Но если за  некоторыми частями мира следили слишком придирчиво, в Мьянме все это не работало. Соцсетью беспрепятственно распространялись сообщения местных властей, в которых депутаты сравнивали рохинджа с животными, призывали расправиться с ними, как Гитлер с евреями, или накормить мусульман свининой, сжечь их дома и тому подобное.

Как выяснили журналисты, контроля за этим не было по банальной причине: в Facebook не было людей, которые бы понимали мьянманский язык. В начале 2015 в глобальной компании работали только два человека, которые им владели. После того, как разгорелся скандал, следить за сообщениями начали 60 модераторов. Однако все они были работниками другой компании, которая просто предоставляла услуги Facebook, и располагалась в соседней Малайзии. Сейчас таких модераторов около 100. В самой компании так прокомментировали ситуацию:

«Мы были слишком медлительны, чтобы ответить на беспокойство гражданского общества, научных и других групп в Мьянме. Мы не хотим, чтобы Facebook использовали для распространения ненависти и разжигание вражды. Это актуально во всем мире, но это особенно актуально в Мьянме, где наши службы могут быть использованы для усиления ненависти или вреда против рохинджа», – в комментарии Reuters сказала Мия Гарлик, директор Facebook по Юго-Восточной Азии.

В конце концов, соцсеть заблокировала профили, которые распространяли вражду – в частности аккаунты политиков и местных депутатов, которые призывали к насилию в Мьянме. Впрочем, тысячам убитых мусульман рохинджа это не помогло. Факт остается фактом: Facebook годами активно способствовал самому большому геноциду 21-го века.

Эксперты и аналитики Facebook во вновь War Room (Военная комната) в Менло-Парк, Калифорния, США, 17 октября 2018 года. Facebook создала специальный отдел (War Room), который борется с дезинформацией и попытками распространения фейков через соцсети

Эксперты и аналитики Facebook во вновь War Room (Военная комната) в Менло-Парк, Калифорния, США, 17 октября 2018 года. Facebook создала специальный отдел (War Room), который борется с дезинформацией и попытками распространения фейков через соцсети . Фото:  EPA-EFE / MONICA DAVEY

Торговцы фейками

На другом конце света – в Косово – Facebook также дает людям несколько иное, чем настоящее объединение. Здесь социальные медиа является эффективной площадкой для манипуляций, а следовательно – и грязного бизнеса. Впрочем, в стране это не вылилось (по крайней мере, массово) в насилие и агрессию.

ВВС публикует репортаж о так называемых «торговцах фейками» – одной из самых популярных и прибыльных профессий среди косоварской  молодежи сейчас. В чем заключается их работа? Создание страниц в Facebook, которые публикуют фейковые новости с громкими заголовками, раскрутки их, и потом монетизация кликов через специальные сервисы. Работают, как правило, на внешний рынок – в основном, Великобританию и ЕС. Один бизнесмен может владеть десятками страниц сразу, а их тематика может быть абсолютно разной – от религиозной до развлекательной.

Впрочем, зарабатывают не только на кликах. Торговля страницами, реклама, накрутка лайков, продажа ботов и любые другие действия для создания целой фейковой реальности приносят неплохие деньги.

В прошлом году такие торговцы зарабатывали около 600 евро в день. Теперь, после скандала с Cambidge Analytica и вмешательством России в выборы США и Brexit, Facebook объявил войну фейкам – и бизнес начал идти сложнее. Впрочем, до сих пор достаточно хорошо по сравнению с другими видами заработка – сегодня дневная прибыль торговца фейками в Косово составляет около 100 евро. Для этой страны это много.

Изменился также и характер фейковых новостей – они стали менее политизированными. Поскольку команда Facebook больше внимания обращает именно на политический контент – ведь как показали последние годы, такие манипуляции могут иметь очень серьезные последствия, – поэтому с политическими новостями стало работать не так выгодно. В таком случае шансы, что вашу страницу заблокируют, значительно выше. Впрочем, это не значит, что контент стал отборным. Люди до сих пор кликают на наиболее желтые и скандальные заголовки – они продаются лучше.

ВВС пишет : «Во всем мире есть тысячи людей, как те, с которыми мы говорили. Как правило, это молодые мужчины, которые разбираются в цифровых технологиях, и они готовы создать любой контент для кликов. И в погоне за кликами в интернете, ужасное, шокирующее, преувеличенное или разъединяющее содержание новостей побеждает снова и снова ».

Менеджер Facebook Самид Чакрабарти, директор компании Facebook с глобальной политики Кейти Харбат и директор Facebook по кибербезопасности Натаниэль Глейхер во вновь War Room (Военная комната) в Менло-Парк, Калифорния, США, 17 октября 2018 года. Facebook создала специальный отдел (War Room), который борется с дезинформацией и попытками распространения фейков через соцсети

Менеджер Facebook Самид Чакрабарти, директор компании Facebook с глобальной политики Кейти Харбат и директор Facebook по кибербезопасности Натаниэль Глейхер во вновь War Room (Военная комната) в Менло-Парк, Калифорния, США, 17 октября 2018 года. Facebook создала специальный отдел (War Room), который борется с дезинформацией и попытками распространения фейков через соцсети. Фото:  EPA-EFE / MONICA DAVEY

Война в 140 символах

В эпоху социальных медиа вместе с войнами на земле продолжаются другие войны, в которых нет различия, у кого мощнее оружие. Гораздо важнее здесь есть те, кто может выиграть информационную битву. В этом убежден британский писатель и журналист Давид Патрикаракос, автор книги «Война в 140 символах: как социальные медиа меняют конфликты в 21 веке». 140 символов это отсылка к ограничению величины сообщение в Twitter, которое существовало до ноября 2017 года.

Журналист путешествовал по миру и пытался понять, как социальные медиа используют в различных войнах. Один из самых ярких примеров – конфликт между Палестиной и Израилем. В 2014 году 16-летняя палестинка Фара Бакер в своем Twitter в течение 51 дня вела текстовую трансляцию из района масштабных обстрелов в секторе Газа. Ее сообщение привлекли внимание медиа всего мира – и благодаря этому твитов  с хэштегом в поддержку Палестины было раз в десять больше чем твитов с хэштегом в поддержку Израиля. В информационной войне победа была за сектором Газа.

В свою очередь, Тель-Авив решил бороться с помощью мемов. В израильской армии, рассказывает Патрикаракос, есть офицеры, которые специально отвечают за ведение войны в социальных сетях. В одном из опубликованных ими твитов изображен чемпион по легкой атлетике Усэйн Болт с подписью: «Самый быстрый человек мира пробегает 200 метров за 20 секунд. В течение ракетной атаки израильтяне, живущие рядом с Газой, имеют лишь 15 секунд, чтобы добежать до бомбоубежища».

Основное сообщение этого мема можно перефразировать так: Палестина агрессор, Израиль – жертва.

Из других примеров, вспоминает автор книги – вербовка террористов Исламского государства через социальные медиа во Франции, российские фабрики троллей и их атаки на Украину и Европу и тому подобное.

Социальные медиа могут способствовать не только распространению дезинформации. Несмотря на множество положительных сторон, они являются эффективным инструментом для воплощения агрессии в реальной жизни. И похоже, в Кремниевой долине пока нет ответа, что с этим делать.

Остап Яриш, опубликовано в издании Громадське

Post Author: admin

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